Brazilian waste management and its symbiosis to the cement market
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
The rules established by the National Policy for Solid Waste (PNRS), published in 2010, end the duality of the old system collection-disposal by introducing certain regulations and technological obligations which require greater technical complexity and mainly the introduction of Technology in the waste sector.

Climate protection through Recycling (circular economy) e. V. – Turn words into deeds
© Wasteconsult international (5/2017)
The industry initiative ‘Climate Protection through Recycling (Circular Economy) e. V.’ is an association of members from all relevant organizations of the waste and Recycling industry as well as large and small, private and municipal waste management companies but also other actors from NRW.

CO2 Capture and Re-Use at a Waste Incinerator
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Recently a new innovative process developed by Procede Gas Treating B.V. has been commissioned at line 3 of the Twence plant, a Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plant located in the eastern part of the Netherlands. In this process the CO2, that usually is emitted to atmosphere, is in this new application, scrubbed from the flue gas and the obtained pure CO2 stream is used to produce a sodium bicarbonate slurry (SBC). Instead of the conventional SBC flue gas scrubbing process, where dry SBC particles are used, this SBC slurry will be injected to remove the acid components from the flue gas, before the gas is emitted to atmosphere. Due to the implementation of this process the carbon footprint of the Twence installation is reduced. The new SBC plant produces 8,000 tons of sodium bicarbonate annually and to produce this amount of SBC 2,000 ton per year CO2 is captured from the flue gas. The CO2 originates for about 50 percent from biomass.

New Developments for an Efficient SNCR Monitoring and Regulation System by Evaluating the NOx Mass Flow Profile
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
When the SNCR process was introduced first in the eighties of the last century the focus was directed towards applying this low cost technology mainly in combustion plants where only relatively low NOx reduction rates were required. In these types of boilers, like waste-to-energy plants (WtE), the required NOx limits < 200 mg/Nm3 could be maintained easily. Today, NOx limits of 100 mg/Nm3 and lower can be achieved and guaranteed at all operating conditions for these applications. Therefore, the SNCR process represents the Best Available Technology (BAT) today. As a result, more and more owners of waste-to-energy plants take advantage of the low costs at comparable performance and replace their existing SCR system with SNCR.

Significance of and Challenges for Flue Gas Treatment Systems in Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Flue gas cleaning downstream of waste incineration plants had its origins in the increased construction and deployment of such plants to counter rising air pollution in the nineteen-sixties. Back then, the ever-growing burden on the environment caused lawmakers to start enacting emission limits for air pollution control. An unceasing series of environmental scandals and increasingly better analytical methods and measuring instrumentation led to a constant reduction of the emission limits and, consequently, to ongoing adjustment and further development of the necessary process stages in flue gas cleaning. As a result, today minimum emissions can be reached even under the challenging condition of deployment of a very inhomogeneous fuel (waste) and, hence, waste incineration today is no longer a key contributor to air pollution. Today, the need for flue gas cleaning is not called into doubt anymore and has long become a matter of course in the industry and in society at large. Apart from ensuring efficient elimination of noxious gases, the focus of today’s further developments is on issues such as energy efficiency, minimization of input materials and recovery and recycling of by-products from flue gas cleaning as valuable raw materials. These issues are also deemed to be key challenges, especially when it comes to selecting sites for new plants in such a manner that potential synergies can be exploited. Such aspects will also have to be considered in the plans for the predicted mega-cities of the future.

Use of a Fabric Filter for the Sorption – What Has to be Considered? – Experiences and Solutions –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In almost all flue gas cleaning systems installed at WtE-plants, the fabric filters are central components. A good example for this is the conditioned dry sorption process which is currently preferentially used in Europe. Within the filter not only the particles and the particulate heavy metals are separated from the gas flow, but also all reaction products resulting from the separation of gaseous pollutants such as HF, HCl, SOx, heavy metals and in this respect particularly Hg as well as PCDD/PCDF. In addition to this the fabric filter constitutes an excellent reaction chamber with high additive powder density in the filter cake.

A Prognosis, and Perhaps a Plan, for Geoengineering Governance
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
The idea of global climate engineering exists, but there are no global institutions capable of making legitimate choices about deploying and managing such an intervention. On the other hand, sub-global regions, mostly individual countries could, and in fact currently do, deploy smaller interventions against natural disasters without global decision-making. If governments actively plan to cooperate on developing and managing interventions to avoid, redirect or modify severe weather natural disasters related to climate change they may along the way learn about how to set intervention goals, make intervention choices, assess outcomes of the intervention and adapt the interventions accordingly. These crucial deliberation and management skills could grow as the interventions grow in response to more severe impacts. Governments should plan to use collaboration on natural disasters as a vehicle for developing the institutional capacity to manage the global climate.

Regulating Geoengineering in International Environmental Law
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
Geoengineering can be viewed in two ways: as a potential cause for further environmental harm or as an option for addressing climate change in addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. So far, the existing legal response in multilateral environmental agreements has been in the former domain. This article shows that this approach does not necessarily provide comprehensive legal regulation of geoengineering as it appears to leave many governance and regulatory gaps. At the same time, developing a new legal instrument on geoengineering does not seem to be feasible for a number of political and other reasons. Therefore, we propose that the most appropriate option for the time being would be to continue with the current approach but enhance inter-regime cooperation and interaction. The article discusses possible formats for such regime cooperation.

A Matter of Scale: Regional Climate Engineering and the Shortfalls of Multinational Governance
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
Debates over climate engineering governance tend to assume this technology is an all-or-nothing affair that produces inherently global effects which intentionally can reachany nation or population. With the emergence of possible regional climate engineering methods that seek to limit their effects to relatively local areas, this governance debate may find itself left behind in some instances by disruptively novel technological options. If so, regional climate engineering may fit better under a combination of local transnational mechanisms and bilateral treaties rather than the existing broad-scale multinational frameworks available under multilateral treaties such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Privatisation and De-globalisation of the Climate
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
This paper considers the issues raised by creating market incentives for private industry to engage in geoengineering. It argues that the benefits could include increased innovation and creativity in dealing with climate-related problems, and that the direct environmental risks are probably manageable. However, the political consequences are potentially destabilising and hard to predict. The creation of diffuse vested commercial interests may obstruct the achievement of the common good, as well as leading to global climate concerns being partially transformed into local weather concerns. While the commodification of the climate fits the long-term trend of increasing human management of the natural world, it is a step of alarming size and possibly hard to reverse.

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