Materials recovery facilities: how legal government units (LGUs) address wastes build up in open dumpsites
© WTERT Asia (4/2017)
Slides from the presentation

Practices and Problems in MSW Management for Bio-Waste in Turkey
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Regarding the integrated solid waste management in Turkey, tremendous efforts have been given to the transposition and implementation of related EU directives. The “By-law” on General Principles of Waste Management (05.07.2008), the “By-law” on Landfilling of Waste (26.03.2010) and many others have been enacted and the management of municipal solid wastes and other special and hazardous wastes has been improved.

A SWOT Analysis for Municipal Waste Management in Turkey and the Challenges in the Course of Access to EU
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Just after the release of Waste Management Action Plan for 2008-2012 period in Turkey, TR - EU negotiations in environment chapter have opened. In the following period, many revisions in present TR regulations have completed and new directives and legislations were put into force on waste management, mostly in accordance with EU acquisitions. While the changes in the regulations in MSW management are realized, some factors are influencing and sometimes blocking their implementation. One of the major reasons is limited number of qualified stuff in regional units of the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. The main challenge for the municipalities is to select and locate a waste management facility with proper combination of technologies while having very limited contact with experts at universities. In addition, neither the ministry nor the municipalities could overcome the public reactions to waste Management facilities. Another significant shortcoming is the incomplete adaption of EU legislation. Implementation of new legislation is possible by immediate developing of national, regional and local waste management plans and supply of satisfactory number of stuff with required expertise.

Future Development of Waste Management in China According to the 13th Five-Year Plan
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Municipal solid waste (MSW) known as trash or garbage consists of food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, PET, glass, textiles, metals, wood and leather, nappies, slug, ash, etc. are arising from human and animal activities. The rapid development and urbanization of China have resulted in an increasing volume of MSW. So the problem of MSW management has become a major social problem, but one the other hand, because of their intrinsic properties, MSW are often reusable and may be considered a resource for energy recovery. The delivering quantity of household waste averages 179 million tons in China, and the amount of untreated MSW over the years has reached 7 billion tons.

Measures to Implement an Advanced Waste Management System in the Czech Republic
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Czech Republic is now preparing the new complete revision of waste law. The transformation of the waste management into the circular economy started through the legislative process in June 2016. Waste management plan of the Czech Republic for 2015 to 2024 clearly specifies waste strategy and priorities for the country. Thus, in the Act on waste the ban on landfilling of recyclable and recoverable waste in 2024, obligatory separate collection of main municipal waste streams including biowaste since 2015 and currently proposed increase of waste landfilling tax with strict recycling targets already in 2018 are only the first milestones leading to smarter waste future in the Czech Republic.

Wrong Tracks in Waste Management
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste Management is ubiquitous in our everyday life. Economic prosperity and the abundance of materialistic goods imply the generation of waste. In parallel the public awareness for environmentally sound solutions in the field of waste management is raising. This context imposes challenging conditions for political leaders. Often politicians are confronted to take decisions about concepts or investments in waste management without independent expertise. They are approached by vendors of waste treatment technologies or concepts, claiming high environmental and energetic performance, combined with profitable cost – benefit rates.

Overview of the Waste Management Situation and Planning in Greece
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste management has been recognized as one of the most pressing problems in Greece suffering of a low level of organization and relying predominantly on semi-controlled landfills until the end of the previous century [9]. Nevertheless improvements have been made during the last twenty years making the solid waste management in Greece a well-structured, organized and environmentally responsible activity with specific goals, mostly in the urban areas. However, there is a big need of changing the waste Management model. The development of efficient use of resources is the mean of realizing this vision. The transformation of the economy towards a resource-efficient direction will lead to increased competitiveness and new sources of growth and jobs through cost reduction through improved efficiency, commercialization of innovations and better management of resources throughout the duration of cycle life.

The Market for Mechanical Biological Waste Treatment Plants in Europe
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Both the number and capacities of mechanical biological treatment plants (MBT plants) have increased significantly in the past years. In late 2015, about 490 MBT plants were active in Europe, reaching a disposal capacity of circa 47 million annual tons. However, despite its steady growth, the MBT market showed volatility. The market development peaked in 2005/2006, with the commissioning of about 80 plants with a capacity of circa 9 million annual tons. In 2015, about 13 new facilities with a capacity of around 2.2 million annual tons went online. The MBT market has also shifted geographically, because the European countries have started implementing the EU Landfill Directive in different years. After MBT plants had mainly been constructed in Southern Europe, Germany and Austria before 2006, investments shifted towards the UK and more recently, towards Eastern Europe. In the coming years, an ambivalent development is expected. Whereas further MBT plants will be constructed in countries still sending large shares of their MSW to landfills, MBT technology will experience increasing pressure in the countries with low landfilling shares.

Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

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