The Right to Water as an International Custom: The Implications in Climate Change Adaptation Measures
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
Water scarcity is a phenomenon of great concern at the international level. Climate change has significant impacts on water access, causing long dry period or intense precipitation, floods and drought. In the brief analysis, it will be proved through States’ practice that the right to water has almost achieved the status of a customary international norm as an independent human right, thus creating obligations upon all States. Considering the relation between water and climate change, it will be argued that the human right to water may be integrated in the adaptation measures provided for by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, even though the human rights and climate change regimes are distinct. The practice in climate change adaptation measures which consider the necessity of granting the access to water to the population is an element which supports the existence of an international custom recognizing the right to water as an independent human right. At the same time, however, this international custom may imply the development of a human rights-based approach in matters concerning climate change.
Sulphate Removal from Ground Water – a Case Study
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
With ratification of the new German drinking water directive, the maximum allowable sulphate concentration is raised from 240 to 250 mg/L. However, exceedances due to geogenic conditions up to 500 mg/L sulphate are no longer permitted. Water supply utilities affected by this change now have to consider suitable treatment technologies for the given conditions. In a case study, a semi industrial pilot plant was operated with different low pressure reverse osmosis and nanofi ltration membranes to identify conditions for a stable operation and the required antiscalant dosage to achieve this. Long term operation was possible with both membrane types at a yield of 80 % with 1.2 g/m³ of polycarboxylic acid continuously dosed as antiscalant. In order to elucidate the possibilities for concentrate discharge several treatment processes have been investigated.
The French Legal Framework for Marine Protected Areas
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2009)
Frankreich ist nicht nur ein wichtiger Mitgliedstaat der Europäischen Union, sondern hat zugleich das zweitgrößte „Aquitorium“ in der Welt. Veranlasst durch die Beschlüsse der 7. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz der Konvention über die Biologische Vielfalt (CBD) in Kuala Lumpur vom Februar 2004 und andere völkerrechtliche Vorgaben, errichtete Frankreich nach anglo-amerikanischem Vorbild ein Amt („L’agence des aires marines protégées“), das für die Auswahl und das Management mariner Schutzgebiete zuständig ist. Das Ziel ist, 10 % des Küstenmeeres
unter Schutz zu stellen.
Drinking water policy
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
It is widely known that disinfection of drinking water is necessary to ensure clean water and safeguard the public from waterborne diseases such as typhoid, cholera, and dysentery. The most common disinfection practice is chlorination. For centuries it was considered as the safest disinfectant to protect the urban population from fatal diseases. In the decade of 1970 the first questions about the chlorination and its impact on human health was raised. After that, a bulk of literature has emerged and surveys have been carried out in order to investigate the possible effect of disinfection by-products (DBPs).
Stockholm Water Week Side Event
© European Water Partnership (8/2007)
This EWP Side Event featured a high level panel discussion on the business response to
the increasing need for water and energy, followed by a discussion between the
audience and the members of the panel.
The European Environmental Liability Directive
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2004)
In April 2004 the EU legislative bodies finally adopted the EU Environmental Liability Directive 2004/35/EC thus putting an end to a controversial legislation process.